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By Daniel C. Snell

A significant other to the traditional close to East deals scholars and basic readers a entire evaluate of close to jap civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the good.

  • Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians
  • Places specific emphasis on social and cultural heritage
  • Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and smooth worlds
  • Provides an invaluable bibliographical advisor to this box of study

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Extra info for A Companion to the Ancient Near East

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For more technical discussions see Ebeling et al. 1928–. For historical geography and maps see Ro¨llig 1977–. More synthetic is Roaf 1990. A good collection of sources is Pritchard 1975. CHAPTER TWO From Sedentism to States, 10,000–3000 BCE Augusta McMahon The first sedentary communities in the Near East appeared about 10,000 B C E , and by 3000 B C E we find urbanized complex societies. The path between these dates is peppered with major innovations – farming and herding, pottery, irrigation, organized religion, public art and architecture.

The competition in trade networks was a factor in the struggles between the most important city-states, especially during the final phase of the Early Dynastic III. In some cases the competition was settled by agreement and delimitation of the respective networks as in the treaty between Ebla and Abarsal, in other cases by recourse to war as between Mari and Ebla. The rise of a new polity in central Mesopotamia, Akkad as heir of Kish, brought about a series of destructive wars. Some of them, under the first ruler of Akkad, Sargon (2335–2279), were intended to conquer the Sumerian south and gave origin to the first regional state that included the entire Lower Mesopotamian river region.

Socio-economic relations had already undergone an important change at the beginning of the second millennium, when workers under corve´e (forced labor), used widely during the Early Bronze, were replaced by hired workers. Of course, the corve´e system was based on the existence of substantial village communities, while hired manpower came from a large dispossessed peasantry. Yet during the Middle Bronze the idea that free families had the right to keep their ancestral lands, and individuals had the right to keep their free status, was still quite strong.

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