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By Daniel C. Snell

A significant other to the traditional close to East bargains scholars and normal readers a entire assessment of close to jap civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the nice. Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians areas specific emphasis on social and cultural heritage Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and sleek worlds offers an invaluable bibliographical consultant to this box of research

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A Companion to the Ancient Near East (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World)

A spouse to the traditional close to East deals scholars and normal readers a complete review of close to japanese civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the nice. Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians areas specific emphasis on social and cultural background Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and glossy worlds offers an invaluable bibliographical consultant to this box of analysis

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Beyond Babylonia, Elam was strong enough to become a permanent actor in Mesopotamian affairs. In a sense, the fate of Babylonia was similar to that of Egypt. Egypt was also unable either to reject or to absorb its Libyan invaders, and it fragmented into various dynasties mostly of Libyan origin. It was threatened by Nubia playing the same role as Elam in Babylonia, and it was no longer a factor on the international scene. Empires, about 750–330 BCE The situation changed in the mid-eighth century.

However, this ‘‘big picture’’ research has a legacy in the lingering assumption of a unilineal trajectory toward agriculturebased complexity, marginalizing alternative economies and political systems in deserts, marshes, and fringes of agricultural communities. Farming-hunting or herding-gathering blended economies and loose tribal groupings were viable long-term possibilities, rather than temporary stages (Zeder 1994), but these alternatives remain under-researched. Although many archaeologists continue to ask cultural and historical questions, Watkins (1992) and Cauvin (2000) have explored the symbolic revolution in the Near Eastern Neolithic (12,000–6300 B C E ), focusing on psychological changes rather than economic, social, and political ones.

The system remained mostly stable during half a century, although the Medes included Armenia and Cappadocia under their hegemony, and the last king of Babylonia (Nabonidus, 555–539) conquered North Arabia at the very end of the period. The age was significant from a cultural point of view. It is the core of the socalled ‘‘Axial Age,’’ with the rise of the monotheistic religions of Judaism and Zoroastrianism, the activity of the major Israelite prophets in the Babylonian exile, and the blooming of the Greek ‘‘archaic’’ civilization with the Ionian philosophers, poets, and artists, and the formative period of democratic ideologies.

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