By Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Johnston, Eric
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Extra info for A Grammar of Mina
Vowel retention is a marker of the phrase-final position, and vowel deletion is a marker of the phrase-internal position. The language has two tones, high and low. The tone has lexical and grammatical functions. Some morphemes have inherent tones and others have polar tones, determined by the following or preceding tone. When the final vowel of a word is de leted, the tone of the vowel is deleted as well. 7. Conclusions 33 We describe the operation of tone in various sections, where the tone plays the grammatical role or when the underlying tones of morphemes are affected.
First examples of the third person suffix added to high-tone verbs: 6. '" (94) v/ a mbal-u vi who 3SG like-3SG who 'Everybody liked her' a 3SG mbal-ü like-3SG Here is an example of the third person suffix added to a low tone verb. '" The determining factor in assignment of the polar tone is the last preceding tone as realized in the surface structure, rather than the underlying tone. e. a marker with high tone, the point of view-of-subject marker has low tone. ' (tor 'separate people who are fighting'; 'save') Similarly the third person object marker added to the consonantal root, has the tone opposite of the last preceding tone: (99) ha tdl kd mal ba \vada mamarj 2SG try INF seize ASSC food his mother md d-u REL cook-3SG 'If you try to discipline [children] with food [be refusing food] it is the mother who cooks it' If the object were to be sensitive to the underlying tone of the verb, which is low, the tone of the object marker u would have been high.
Focus on the adverb can be coded by setting it apart as a separate phrase through retention of the preceding vowel: (66) S3 lim-e gwafya mumburko 1SG see-GO elephant yesterday saw an elephant, just yesterday'. ' mumburko\ yesterday Word-initial vowels which are not grammatical morphemes and which do not replace preceding vowels, are deleted in phrase-internal position. In the following phrase the noun hida 'man' in isolation has an epenthetic [h]. The glottal continuant [h] does not occur in phraseinternal position.