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By Kenneth M. Setton, Norman P. Zacour, Harry W. Hazard

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Extra resources for A History of the Crusades, Vol. VI: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe, Together with a Bibliography of the Crusades

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Instead of starting from a conception of the just war, he began by considering what makes war unjust. He said that there are three things: attacking the innocentkilling poor men and nameless farmers, ransacking hospitals and even leprosaria; fighting without reason; and fighting without authority. The war against Islam, on the contrary, was "just". The Moslems were not innocent; they were "culpable in the highest degree against the whole of Christendom"; he elaborated this no further, and to Moslem "guilt" -no nameless farmers, no hospitals-we must come back.

It might seem that once a man is outside the church, he is outside, and repetition adds nothing; his answer is that the effect of the first excommunication is to put the offender outside, of later excommunications to keep him there, since each sentence requires its own proper satisfaction. He draws a parallel with the penalties for usury, where the restitution must be commensurate with the offense; here more so, because the offender, guilty of "attacking" the Christian faith, sees his confiscated gain.

This unattractive picture of a worldly king became less attractive still when the pope drove home the comparison with the King of kings "as if ejected from the kingdom which he provided at the price of his blood". This is merely another variation on the theme of defense, but the picture of the enemy as a criminal or rebel was becoming clearer and acquiring a more obviously legal force. 24 This is a variation on the theme of persecution, and it is still as much an exhortation as an attempt at legal justification.

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