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By Samuel Elmo Martin

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It will be observed that strings of lax obstruents are not permitted: the expected kp is automatically replaced by kpp, etc. Since most cases of lax obstruent + reinforced obstruent (kpp, ... ) are the result of juxtaposing two basic lax obstruents (-k + p-, ... ), the default Hankul spelling is ···k­ P"' ( ... ) for ALL cases of /kpp/ ( ... ) except when the second element is clearly a form that has a basic shape with initial pp·.. ( ... ). The string /yakpalle/ can represent both yak palle 'applies medicine' and yak-ppalle 'is shrewd and quick'.

The notion of "expected" is with respect to the analysis underlying the Romanization: when a syllable ending in -p is attached to one beginning with -p, the string that results is syllable-initial pp-, pronounced as the onset of the second syllable but optionally picking up a parasitic final -p (not the original -p) when the articulatory process is slowed down. Syllable boundaries are assumed to be automatically determined at a given tempo. The zero onset and coda are noted with the symbol "o".

J. Geminate hh, called ssang hiuh was used to write the voiced-h initial in the prescribed readings of Chinese words and in representing the verb stem hhye-, an intensive form of hye-'pull, drag'. The letters that are joined to form a Korean syllable are sometimes found isolated, as when ki(y)ek, niun, tikut, ... ", "c. ", .... As isolated symbols the letters are called ttan ··· 'separate ... ' or 'free-standing ... '. In Middle Korean texts several of the isolated letters are used for special purposes.

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