By Richard Bohart & Lionel Stange
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Additional info for A revision of the genus Zethus Fabricius in the Western Hemisphere (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae)
D. F. (1986) Basic Methods in Molecular Biology. Elsevier, New York, 383 pp. W. S. (eds) (2003) PCR Primer, A Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Plainview, New York, 520 pp. T. B. (2005) Persistence of extracellular baculoviral DNA in aquatic microcosms: extraction, purification, and amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular and Cellular Probes 19, 75–80. A. (1990) Biological and biochemical comparison of Mamestra configurata and Mamestra brassicae nuclear polyhedrosis virus isolates pathogenic for bertha armyworm: Mamestra configurata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
4. , 1986). This is a very simple and routine technique, and a wide variety of Type II REN enzymes are available commercially, typically supplied with ready-to-use buffers for digest incubation. 4% agarose gels made up in appropriate running buffer and electrophoresed for several hours to overnight (see Sambrook and Russell, 2001, Chapter 5 for a complete explanation of gel electrophoresis). The agarose gels are then incubated with appropriate stains that intercalate into dsDNA fragments and fluoresce upon exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light so that the DNA fragments can be visualized.
Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae including entomopathogenic nematodes symbionts are Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, asporogenous, rod-shaped bacteria generally motile by peritrichous flagellae and able to grow both aerobically and anaerobically. Diagnostic morphological characters common to Pseudomonads are: rod-shaped cells, presence of polar flagella. Pseudomonadaceae are also Gram-negative and have an aerobic metabolism. Thiéry and Frachon (1997) provided a complete summary of the most commonly considered methods for isolation, culture and preservation of entomopathogenic bacteria, and readers should refer to this publication for further information.