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By Carel L. Davidson, Ivar A. Mjor, C. L. Davidson

Univ. of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. development within the formula and figuring out of glass-ionomer cements and the efficacy of polyacid-modified resin fabrics. For medical and laboratory researchers. colour and halftone illustrations. DNLM: Glass Ionomer Cements.

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Diode lasers are operated in either continuous or gated mode; continuous operation does not allow any thermal relaxation. Lower-power settings should be chosen to prevent temperature increase beyond the treatment goal of decontamination or coagulation. If gated (pulsed) mode is selected, a higher energy may be required to raise the tissue temperature with each pulse. The gated mode allows the tissue to cool before the succeeding pulse. All tissues have an absorption threshold; tissue can absorb only so much energy before it is overloaded by the energy and becomes painful and is damaged.

CLINICAL TIP A joule (J) is a measurement of energy available to do work in dentistry; dental professionals work in millijoules (mJ). Micropulsed CO2 Lasers The micropulsed 10,600-nm CO2 lasers incorporate the newest technology available in producing CO2 laser energy. Delivery by an articulated arm or waveguide in noncontact mode facilitates treatment. A 250-μm tip (the diameter of a #25 endodontic file) is used for administering laser energy into the periodontal pocket. This wavelength interacts with water and hydroxyapatite and has a depth of penetration on the order of micrometers.

Analysis of the probing results shows a resolution of 86% of the bleeding sites, a decrease in 86% of the pocketing sites, and a 58% decrease in the number of teeth exhibiting periodontal disease. Complications and Adverse Reactions Healing may be complicated by microbiologic, immunologic, and traumatic factors. Rapid pocket reinfection will occur with insufficient removal of subgingival biofilm, with inadequate supragingival biofilm control, or with uncorrected poor restorative conditions. Patients with a compromised immune system often exhibit a delayed or less optimal healing response; with the assistance of laser benefits, however, such patients could recover better than expected.

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