By D. Welbourne and P. Hammond (Auth.)
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After amplification and level stabilization, a noise spectrum flat from about 30 c/s to about 3 kc/s can 48 ANALOGUE COMPUTING METHODS be produced. A region, say from 300 to 500 cs is selected by a band pass filter and shifted by a chopper relay technique, working at 400 cs, to give the sum and difference frequencies of 400 cs with the noise waveform. After filtering off the high frequencies, Gaussian noise to about 1 per cent from 0 to 35 cs, can be obtained. This is a wide enough band for most analogue uses.
5c) R1 Therefore _Fo at = _ L | '^df, where t0 and t1 are the starting time and the time of observation. The conventional symbol for an integrating amplifier with integrator gains yl9 y2, y3, is shown in Fig. 5c. By putting a capacitor in the input and a resistor as the feedback component of an amplifier, a transfer function of the form pCR is obtained. This corresponds to a pure differentiator. However, a differentiator accentuates any noise that may be present in the circuit, since its gain increases with frequency.
SUMMER AND INTEGRATOR SCALING Suppose the constants of the physical system of a mass and a spring give the equation Jc + 2-0x+16[>-/(*)] = 0 , where x is the displacement in inches, and / the time in seconds. Suppose, further, that we are only interested in oscillations and changes of x where x is less than 5 in. , the voltage representing x, that is (20x) volts, is 100V. We have chosen a scale for length measurements, but the equation involves rates of change also. It is therefore necessary to estimate the greatest rates of change of interest, so that the voltages representing x and x are within +100 V.