By Guy Bradley
This ebook, the 1st full-scale therapy of old Umbria in any language, takes a balanced view of the region's historical past within the first millennium BC, concentrating on neighborhood activities and motivations up to the impression of out of doors impacts and Roman regulations.
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Additional info for Ancient Umbria: State, Culture, and Identity in Central Italy from the Iron Age to the Augustan Era
66 67 Approaching the history of Umbria The overall impression gained from this survey of the epigraphy generated within Umbria in the fourth and third centuries is one of particularism. This obviously contrasts with the image of the Umbrians as an uniﬁed ethnic group provided by Greek writers in the ﬁfth and fourth centuries. 71 However, it is important to take account of the variety of types of evidence, and their particular perspectives. Early Greek authors were probably using a term, Umbrian, that was already in circulation in an Italian context, but they were prone to generalizing about ethnic groups, and are unlikely to have had a good understanding of the complex mix of ethnic group identities along the Adriatic coast, let alone inland.
52 See Colonna, ‘Ricerche sugli Etruschi e sugli Umbri’. 53 Dion. , . . –: ‘The peoples of Italy have been confused under a common name quite as often as any peoples elsewhere. ’ G. Colonna, ‘La Romagna fra Etruschi, Umbri e Pelasgi’, in La Romagna tra VI e IV sec. C. nel quadro della protostoria dell’Italia centrale (Bologna, ), –. Approaching the history of Umbria It is also worth noting that the use of the ‘Umbrian’ toponyms in Etruria recorded by Pliny (the river Umbro and the tractus Umbriae of NH .
3 The prominent role of Samnite communities in the Social War is further evidence of their wealth and organization. 5 The lack of urbanization in Samnium is as much a sign of its cultural difference as it is of its poverty. What is important is that the societies of Samnium, although constructed on decidedly different lines to the cities of neighbouring Latium and Campania, clearly had the organizational capabilities of states. Focusing on state organization allows us to appreciate the diversity of such early Italian societies, whilst avoiding the distortions of urbanocentricity.