By Ramesh Singh
Utilize the latest advancements to strive against demanding situations equivalent to ice mechanics. the ideal spouse for engineers wishing to benefit cutting-edge equipment or extra boost their wisdom of most sensible perform recommendations, Arctic Pipeline Planning offers a operating wisdom of the expertise and strategies for laying pipelines within the coldest areas of the area. Arctic Pipeline Planning presents must-have parts that may be applied via all stages of arctic pipeline making plans and development. This comprises details on how to:
- Solve demanding situations in designing arctic pipelines
- Protect pipelines from daily threats similar to ice gouging and permafrost
- Maintain protection and verbal exchange for development staff whereas helping standard codes and criteria
- Covers such matters as land survey, trenching or above flooring, environmental influence of construction
- Provides on-site problem-solving ideas applied via all levels of arctic pipeline making plans and construction
- Is packed with easy-to-read and comprehensible tables and bullet lists
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Extra resources for Arctic Pipeline Planning. Design, Construction, and Equipment
Individual network cards are installed in these devices to connect to each local area network (LAN). Switchover between redundant equipment or subsystems in case the primary fails is seamless for both the process and the operators, apart from the event/alarm announcing the switchover. The system is designed to constantly check the statuses of both the primary and the secondary modules and indicate failures of either of them. The system indicates the current primary/backup/start-up/failed status of each component.
These components are similarly designed and procured as in a conventional pipeline project except that care is taken to select material suitable for extremely cold and demanding service. Their installation also faces similar challenges of permafrost and thawing. The design engineers must consider these challenges and address them to avoid failure. 20 CONTROL VALVES Generally, the sizing of control valves is based on 20À70% of valve travel for the given design condition. The control valves are designed to maintain throttling control at maximum and minimum flow rates.
100 F change in temperature. This change can consist of expansion as well as contraction. The simple calculation of contraction is illustrated in the following example. •••Example In an unrestrained pipeline of 1000 ft, a change of temperature occurs from 132 F to 240 F in winter. Estimate the contraction of the pipeline. 8) Substituting the values, Contraction 5 0:798 3 ð1000=100Þ 3 ð72=100Þ 5 0:798 3 10 3 0:72 5 5:7456 in: 5 5:75 in: Due to a change in the temperature of crude oil, the surrounding pipe experiences thermal expansion or contraction.