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Adelard of Bath had also accepted this theory of gravity and was able to satisfy his had brought 16 WESTERN SCIENCE UNTIL THE I2TH CENTURY nephew's curiosity by saying that if a stone were dropped into a hole passing through the centre of the earth it would only as far as the centre. The movement of the heavenly bodies was explained by supposing that the universe, being spherical, had a proper motion of uniform eternal rotation in a circle about a fixed centre, as could be seen in the daily rotation of the fixed stars.
Augustine's writings, the demiurge had been replaced by the Christian God, and the forms given to the material world were reflections of the eternal ideas existing in the mind of God. According to Plato's Timaus the four elements out of which quadrivium, that is on mathematics all made, earth, water, air and were composed of small invisible particles, those of each element having a characteristic geometrical shape by which the demiurge had reduced to order the originally disorderly motions of chaos.
These more radical criticisms derived for the most part from the change in the theory of science that began during the 13th century, a change which led to the conception that the experimental and mathematical methods should extend over the whole field of natural science. This was the conception that brought about the revolution in science that culminated in the 17th century, and so, while the present chapter is concerned with the 13th century scientific system itself, the two following chapters will give an account of the two traditions of details of the system will those involving criticism of scientific made the 1 activity, the technical and the possible the transition to the new theoretical, that scientific system of 7th century.