By Kenneth Sauer (Eds.)
This quantity comprises spectroscopic equipment for the characterization of macromolecules. equipment span the electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray to microwaves. It specializes in the kinds of data that may be derived: how measurements are made; state-of-the-art equipment; information acquisition, research, and interpretation; casebook examples; and new advancements and destiny instructions.
* Ultraviolet and visual Spectroscopy, including
* Absorption and round Dichroism
* temporary Absorption and Kinetics
* Linear Dichroism and Fluorescence
* Vibrational Spectroscopy
* Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
* X-Ray Spectroscopy
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Additional resources for Biochemical Spectroscopy
121. VCH, New York, 1994. ~4T. H. Ji and D. W. Urry, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34, 404 (1969). 15 I. , C. Bustamante, and M. F. Maestre, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 9, 107 (1980). 16 I. , W. Mickols, M. F. Maestre, and C. Bustamante, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 16, 319 (1987). ~7M. F. Maestre, G. C. Salzman, R. A. Tobey, and C. Bustamante, Biochemistry 24, 5152 (1985). 18 L. D. Barron, M. P. Bogaard, and A. D. Buckingham, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 95, 603 (1973). 14] CIRCULARDICHROISM 39 surements on biopolymers feasible.
The state can be investigated by a polarized probe pulse or by the polarization of emitted fluorescent light. Samples that are partially oriented by compression or expansion of gels, by stretching of films, or by external electric or magnetic fields can also be studied by polarized absorption and emission. The linear dichroism and fluorescence anisotropy methods reveal the orientations of ground state and excited state transition moments, and the interactions among them. Coherent and incoherent states are possible; their properties are very different.
Randall, "Polarized Light in Optics and Spectrosc o p y , " p. 13. Academic Press, San Diego, 1990. 6 W. Kuhn, Trans. Faraday Soc. 46, 293 (1930). 98 AA (6) where 0 is in degrees. To eliminate the effects of path length and concentration, the molar ellipticity is defined as  = 1000 lc 3298 Ae (7) The units for molar ellipticity are degrees cm2/dmol. Logically, it would be better to use Ae consistently in reporting CD. However,  is firmly entrenched in the literature, especially in the area of biochemistry.