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Each point represents the mean activity of two replicates of pooled samples from five insects. 1 gm fresh tissue). ) 44 G. Michael Chippendale instars of B. mori is released into the hemolymph as trehalose and taken up by the developing oocytes in the pharate adult. Glycogen is synthesized in insect ovaries during the terminal phase of vitellogenesis. For example, measurements of [3H]glucose uptake by ovaries of the queen bee, A. mellifera, and M. domestica have shown that glycogen is synthesized in the ooplasm during the last stages of vitellogenesis.

Morsitans oxidize glycogen to provide energy for digestion and absorption and contain fourteen times more glyco­ gen than the flight muscles. The mobilization of glucose and trehalose from glycogen reserves is under metabolic and hormonal regulation. The phosphorolytic and hydrolytic en- The Functions of Carbohydrates in Insect Life Processes 25 zymes involved and the extent of the controls are described in Section VIII, B, D. 2. Trehalose Synthesis CH 2 OH OH o N , A K HOH2C A |/L0J\OJYOH OH Structure of a, a-trehalose (a-D-glucopyranosyl-aD -glucopy r anoside) The naturally occurring isomer of trehalose, α,α-trehalose, was first iden­ tified as an important reserve carbohydrate of insects in 1956 when Wyatt and Kalf isolated and identified the trehalose present in the hemolymph of the silkmoth, Telea polyphemus, and Howden and Kilby made a similar determination using S.

For example, Fig. 02 ~0 49 10 "From Beenakkers et al. (1975). ft Mean enzyme activities calculated from at least five determinations at 25°C. last larval and adult stages. The specific activity of GPDH in the powerful flight muscles (the longitudinal dorsal muscles and most of the lateral pterothoracic muscles) rises six- to eightfold and reaches its maximum level in the 5-day-old adult. In contrast, only a twofold increase in the specific activity of GPDH was found in the flexor and extensor muscles of the metathoracic leg during the same period.

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