By Friedrich Ruttner
Honeybees are as small as flies or as huge as hornets, nesting in nar row cavities of timber and rocks or within the open on huge limbs of timber 30 m above floor. They take place in tropical zones and within the forests of the Ural mountains, they live on seven months of wintry weather or even longer classes of drought and warmth. traditionally, they lived via a prolonged time of stagnation within the tropics from the mid-Tertiary, yet then skilled an explosive evolution throughout the Pleistocene, re sulting within the conquest of big new territories and the starting place of 2 dozen subspecies in Apis mellifera. This mammoth geographic and ecologic diversification of the genus Apis was once observed through a wealthy morphological edition, much less at the point of species than on the lowest rank, the subspecies point. edition being completely of a quantitative variety at this primary step of speciation, tradi tional descriptive equipment of systematics proved to be unsatisfactory, and honeybee taxonomy eventually ended up in a complicated multitude of inadequately defined devices. potent equipment of morphometric-sta tistical research of honeybee popUlations, headquartered on restricted parts, were built over the past many years. in basic terms the numerical characterization of the populations, including the outline of habit, exhibits the real geographic variability and should finish present generalizations and handy stereotypes.
Read or Download Biogeography and Taxonomy of Honeybees PDF
Similar entomology books
This accomplished paintings is the 1st single-volume ebook of the twentieth century to study the biology of this crucial staff of bugs, together with a whole record of Collembola genera including greater than 2,500 references in addition to the discussions of springtail habit, body structure and evolution.
The participants current a various number of chapters on simple examine on the molecular point utilizing Lepidoptera as version platforms. This quantity, besides the fact that, is greater than only a compendium of data approximately insect structures typically, or the Lepidoptera specifically. each one bankruptcy is a self-contained remedy of a huge topic quarter, offering enough history info to offer readers a feeling of the guiding ideas and imperative questions linked to each one subject, as well as significant methodologies and findings.
Written by way of a staff of major overseas experts, Behavioral Ecology of Insect Parasitoids examines the optimum behaviors that parasitoids show with the intention to maximize long-term offspring construction. it truly is a vital reference for examine scientists and scholars learning those interesting bugs or for somebody fascinated by utilizing parasitoids in organic keep watch over courses.
Spiders are one of the such a lot various teams of terrestrial invertebrates, but they're one of the least studied and understood. this primary finished consultant to all sixty eight spider households in North the United States fantastically illustrates 469 of the main generally encountered species. crew keys permit identity through internet kind and different observable information, and species descriptions contain identity assistance, normal habitat, geographic distribution, and behavioral notes.
- Veterinary Entomology: Livestock and Companion Animals
- Insect physiology and biochemistry
- Forensic Entomology: An Introduction
- The Physiology of Insecta
- A Field Guide to the Tiger Beetles of the United States and Canada: Identification, Natural History, and Distribution of the Cicindelinae
Additional resources for Biogeography and Taxonomy of Honeybees
To cope with permanent temperatures, such as the prevailing lows in temperate zones during winter, would be completely impossible. The prerequisite of an efficient temperature regulation was the change from openair nesting to a cave-nesting colony with several combs. This change had to be complemented by a more sophisticated communication in the dark. Perhaps even more important is the behavior of clustering (swarm and winter cluster, protective curtain), typical for all Apis species. 2). This perhaps is the reason why the subfamily Apinae exclusively evolved thermo homeostasis.
3). 3 Principal Period and Extent of Radiation Each subfamily radiated at a different time: early Tertiary in Meliponinae (Wille 1980), late Tertiary in Bombinae (Williams 1985), end of Tertiary-Pleistocene in Apinae, as will be demonstrated later. This difference in time of evolution is reflected by differences in rank and number of the taxa: Meliponinae - 18 genera, 500 species; Bombini - 3 genera, about 290 species; Apini - 1 genus, 4 (or 5) species (with many subspecies). 4 Ecology Each of the three subfamilies of Apidae is well characterized by its general structure, adapted in a special way to different environments: the predominantly small Meliponinae with more or less large, perennial colonies in sophisticated nests, strictly pantropical; the large, sturdy pubescent Bombini with relatively small seasonal colonies in cool (even arctic and alpine) climate; the generally large, slender Apini, which succeeded in attaining remarkable independence from environmental conditions by a very high level of social organization (homeothermy).
In conclusion, "Electrapis" seems to have been a group of species in an ancestral position in respect to all recent Apidae. At the same time, however, typical Meliponinae existed already. Therefore, they have to be considered as the most ancient subfamily. 2 Morphology In spite of a clear characterization of the subfamilies, the deduction of a plausible phylogenesis is not easily achieved at first sight. 1 Distribution of characters among subfamilies of Apidae (Winston and Michener 1977). of derived charact.