Download Biology of Spiders by Rainer Foelix PDF

By Rainer Foelix

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This e-book comprises the newest learn whereas dispelling many oft-heard myths and misconceptions that encompass spiders. Of unique curiosity are chapters at the constitution and serve as of spider webs and silk, in addition to these on spider venom. a brand new subchapter on tarantulas will attraction in particular to tarantula keepers and breeders.
The hugely available textual content is supplemented by way of remarkable, top of the range pictures, a lot of them originals, and unique diagrams. it will likely be of curiosity to arachnologists, entomologists, and zoologists, in addition to to teachers, scholars of biology, and the overall reader excited by spiders.

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B) Each cuticular lamella consists of many parallel layers of differently oriented microfibers; in sections this gives the impression of arcuate structures as pictured in (a). 30 (a) Longitudinally broken exocuticle from a tarantula (Ephebopus) showing stacks of lamellae, traversed by numerous pore canals (Pc). ) filaments. the epicuticle, is much thicker. It consists of many stacked lamellae (figs. 30), which are structures also characteristic of the meso- and endocuticle. Each lamella is composed of microfibers that are ostensibly arranged in a paraboloid fashion.

8), and they literally spear their prey with these enormous appendages. Often male spiders have larger chelicerae than the females (fig. 8). The common zebra spider, Salticus scenicus (fig. 20), is a typical example of such sexual dimorphism. In another jumping spider (Myrmarachne), the male’s chelicerae are five times larger than the female’s, but the male’s chelicerae lack a fang duct and therefore they cannot envenom prey (Pollard, 1994). Instead they skewer their victims on their elongated cheliceral fangs.

Each lamella is composed of microfibers that are ostensibly arranged in a paraboloid fashion. Careful analysis reveals, however, that each lamella is made up of many thin layers of microfibers (Barth, 1973a); these microfibers are oriented in the same direction within any given layer but change their direction by increments 43 44 BIOLOGY OF SPIDERS from layer to layer so that a complete rotation (180°) of the fiber direction takes place within one lamella (fig. 29b). From a technological viewpoint, the cuticle is thus a kind of laminated composite material.

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