Download Biology of Springtails (Insecta: Collembola) by Stephen P. Hopkin PDF

By Stephen P. Hopkin

This finished paintings is the 1st single-volume booklet of the 20 th century to study the biology of this crucial crew of bugs. As frequent terrestrial animals, the springtails, order Collembola, are very important symptoms of environmental toxins. integrated during this textual content is an entire record of Collembola genera including greater than 2,500 references in addition to the discussions of springtail habit, body structure and evolution.

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This procedure has been applied successfully to immature grasshoppers (Besnard et al. 2007). Odonates would be suitable models, because exuviae are concentrated in time and space, and therefore marks could be recovered easily. Tackling the above-mentioned issues is crucial to further exploit odonates as model organisms in testing general ecological and evolutionary hypotheses that require precise and unbiased population parameters. Odonates may seem especially useful in following areas of research that in our opinion are underexplored.

For some species 23 there may be special requirements for oviposition; for example, Anax junius oviposits endophytically (inside leaf tissue) and thus requires aquatic vegetation. Aquatic vegetation also increases the structural complexity of the aquatic environment and provides refuge from predation for larval odonates (Johansson 2000). Odonates appear primarily to use visual and tactile senses to select oviposition sites, but their ability to detect and respond to the chemical presence of fish predators seems to be weak at best (McPeek 1989).

In most studies with larval odonates, risk reduction occurs when asymmetric IGP leads to density-mediated indirect effects; that is, top predators reduce the density of intermediate predators thus indirectly promoting shared prey survival. Trait-mediated indirect effects are also mechanisms that may lead to risk reduction and occur when intermediate predators reduce activity level and foraging rates in the presence of top predators. Some studies suggest that the magnitude of trait-mediated effects is similar to, if not stronger than, density-mediated effects (Crumrine and Crowley 2003; Preisser et al.

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