By Dr. Anthony C. Neville (auth.)
Mention the phrases 'arthropod cuticle' to such a lot biologists and so they frequently galvanize a glazed expression. this is why the cuticle is usually considered as an inert substance. it's was hoping that this e-book will dispel this fallacy. The research of cuticle in its right context now contains a number of the wider points of biology that are at present trendy (e. g. how a hormone like ecdyson induces a particular enzyme like dopa decarboxylase; the unsolved serious problem of cellphone gradient and polarity; the involvement of cyclic AMP in hormonal mechanisms; the additional mobile regulate of cuticular enzymes, of the mechanical right ties of cuticle structural proteins, and of the orientation of fibrous molecules; and the relation of chromosome puffing to the synthesis of particular proteins). stories on cuticle call for numerous recommendations, and examples of the next are illustrated during this e-book (fluorescence, section distinction, polariza tion and Nomarski interference microscopy; infrared absorp tion; transmission and scanning electron microscopy; autora diography analyzed through electron microscopy; detrimental staining within the electron microscope; optical diffraction, excessive attitude X-ray diffraction, low attitude X -ray diffraction and chosen quarter electron diffraction). i'm good acutely aware that the biophysical elements of this publication are much less incomplete than different elements. A developmental biologist or a biochemist could have additional elaborated different components ofthe subject material. just one earlier writer, RICHARDS (1951)hasdevoted a ebook to arthropod cuticle.
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Extra resources for Biology of the Arthropod Cuticle
BENNET-CLARK (1963b) showed experimentally that the epicuticle (presumably outer plus inner) limits the size of expanding Rhodnius nymphs, since although it is thin, it is nevertheless stronger in tension than the underlying exocuticle (which is at that time plasticized, see Chapter 6). LAI-FoOK (1967) records the absence of epicuticle folding before ecdysis in Rhodnius muscle insertion regions. This is not the general case, however, as is shown by an electron micrograph of a pharate adult locust leg tendon (Fig.
Electron micrograph of a section cut nearly vertically through a muscle attachment Monachina schultzei (Thysanura). (Micrograph by Dr. S. CAVENEY) As for Fig. 22, but cut obliquely. (From CAVENEY, 1969) Electron micrograph of the epipleural muscle insertion region in a flea, Xenopsylla cheopis. ( x 42,000) Fig. 25. As for Fig. 24, showing a ring of microtubules around each hemidesmosome. ( x 108,000) 38 2·23 Figs. 23. Legends see opposite page 39 Figs. 25. Legends see page 38 40 end to 250A at the cuticle surface (CAVENEY, 1969).
35 Fig. 20. Electron micrograph of abdominal cuticle of a spider, Aphonopelma chalcodes (Theraphodidae). (Micrograph by Dr. J. A. L. COOKE) 36 5. Muscle Attachment Structures As the result of several recent electron microscope studies, we now know that arthropods have a characteristic type of attachment of muscles to the cuticle which is quite distinct from the type found in vertebrates. Such insertions have two requirements: while they must transmit the forces of muscular contraction to the skeleton throughout most of the life cycle, they must nevertheless be capable of releasing and remaking attachment at each moulting cycle.