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By Sir Monier Monier-Williams

This booklet derives from a chain of lectures given in 1888 through Monier Monier-Williams, who used to be Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford for over 30 years and whose paintings broke new flooring within the Western knowing of Buddhism and different South Asian religions. This gigantic historic survey of Buddhism starts with an account of the Buddha and his earliest educating, in addition to a quick description of the beginning and composition of the scriptures containing the Buddha's legislation (Dharma). Monier-Williams explains the early structure of the Buddha's order of priests (Sangha), and descriptions the philosophical doctrines of Buddhism including its code of morality and idea of perfection, culminating in Nirvana. He additionally describes formal and renowned rituals and practices, and sacred locations and gadgets. The publication is an instance of Victorian Orientalist scholarship which continues to be of curiosity to historians of non secular reviews, Orientalism, and the British Empire.

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477 Half the size of the original sculpture. Buddha is in the attitude of meditation under the tree, with a halo or aureola round his head. Probable date, not earlier than 9th century. 16. S c u l p t u r e found b y G e n e r a l S i r A . C u n n i n g h a m a t S a r n a t h , near Benares . . . . To face 4 7 7 Illustrative of the four principal events in Gautama Buddha's life— namely, his birth, his attainment of Buddhahood under the tree, his teaching at Benares, and his passing away in complete Nirvana (see p.

S, s, as in sure, session; Sh, sh, as in shun, hush; S, s, as in sir, hiss. H, h, as in hit. In Tibetan the vowels, including even e and o, have generally the short sound, but accentuated vowels are comparatively long. I have marked such words as Lama with a long mark to denote this, bitt Koeppen and Jaschke write Lama. Jaschke says that the Tibetan alphabet was adapted from the Lancha form of the Indian letters by Thumi (Thonmi) Sambhota (see p. 270) about the year 632. OBSERVE. It is common to hear English-speakers mispronounce the words Buddha and Buddhism.

Sculpture found at Buddha-Gaya representing the earliest Triad, viz. Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha . . 485 The drawing is from a photograph belonging to Sir A. Cunningham, described at p. 484. 20. Votive Stupa found at Buddha-Gaya . Probable date about 9th or 10th century of our era. To face 505 21. Clay model of a small votive Stupa rO6 Selected from several which the author saw in the act of being made by a monk outside a monastery in British Sikkim in 1884. This model probably contains the' Ye dharma' or some other formula on a seal inside.

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