By Augustus A. White
Covers scoliosis & the restricted position of bracing, spinal trauma, together with burst fractures, & the function of activities & athetics in cervical backbone accidents.
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Extra info for Clinical Biomechanics of the Spine (2nd Edition)
Very little motion took place in a direction perpendicular to the plane of motion. These findings were con firmed by Roaf,' 1 S who noticed that the bulging of the annulus is always on the concave side of the curve and that denucleation seemed to increase bulging. However, no exact measurements were Torsional Behavior The hypothesis that torsion may be a major injury-causing load was proposed by Farfan in 1973 ••7 based upon the earlier work by his group s. In the particular experiment. fresh cadav eric lumbar vertebra-disc-vertebra construct (in cluding the posterior elements) was subjected to torsional 10adir1g around a fixed axis passing through the posterior aspect of the disc.
D The load-deforma tion curves were found to be similar in shape to Lhe stress-strain curves of the l igamentum f1avum. 1 64 This implies that the spinal ligaments are similar in functional design. The anterior longitudinal l iga ment was found to be twice as strong as the posterior Clinical Biomechanics of the Spine 22 ligament. But the material properties of the two l iga ments were nearly the same, as shown by the strength values of the samples of equal cross-section (failure stress) taken from the two ligaments.
All the biomechanical parameters were found to decrease wilh age. The greatest decrease was found in the energy absorption values. This documents the decrease in the shock-absorbing characteristics of the l igaments with age. Regarding the degenerative changes. Tkaczuk found that the maximum. as well as the residual deformations were lower for Lhe degenerated discs. D The load-deforma tion curves were found to be similar in shape to Lhe stress-strain curves of the l igamentum f1avum. 1 64 This implies that the spinal ligaments are similar in functional design.