By M. Pescatori, C.I. Bartram, A.P. Zbar, R.J. Nicholls
2-D and 3D anal ultrasound are one of the newest and complex instruments on hand for either the analysis and the administration of anorectal ailments. they're neither dear nor destructive for the sufferers and steadily changed anal mapping with EMG electrodes for the prognosis of sphincter's defects and anismus, which represents approximately 50% of the situations of power constipation. Anal US may supply the clinician with worthy info for either category, analysis and administration of anorectal sepsis, anal incontinence and anorectal-perineal persistent ache. virtually any case offered during this Atlas indicates either imaging and medical images, hence permitting either the radiologist and the clinician to evaluate the reliability of the examination and the end result of the chosen treatment.
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Extra info for Clinical Ultrasound in Benign Proctology: 2-D and 3-D Anal, Vaginal and Transperineal Techniques
Spyrou • P. De Nardi Chapter 2 53 Anal Fissure Incontinence has been variably reported following lateral internal anal sphincterotomy with considerable evidence to show that the extent of the sphincterotomy correlates with both postoperative functional outcome as well as specific quality of life [61-65]. This issue is complex since there may be concomitant inadvertent external anal sphincter damage in some cases and the effect of destructive postoperative deep seated perirectal sepsis. In some patients no significant demonstrable sphincter injury (beyond localized internal anal sphincterotomy) is detected and here there may be relatively subtle variations in the character and parameters of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (an internal anal sphincter function) as well as constitutive variations in external anal sphincter overlap of the termination of the internal anal sphincter whereby internal sphincterotomy could render the distal anal canal relatively unsupported .
A fistulectomy had been carried out Fig. 17f. Final view of the operative field showing the retroanal opening filled with gauze and the two counter-incisions aimed at draining the ischiorectal fossae. Both the left ischiorectal fossa and deep retroanal space are drained by means of two Foley catheters. A draining seton has been inserted around the external sphincter (arrow) M. Pescatori • S. Ayabaca • M. Spyrou • P. De Nardi Chapter 2 29 Rectovaginal Fistula Ano (or recto-) vaginal fistula may present as part of destructive perirectal sepsis and its preoperative recognition (sometimes in the face of minimal symptoms) may govern the surgical approach (transperineal versus endoanal).
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