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By Alan T. Murray

This textual content brings jointly differing geographic views in modeling and research with a view to spotlight infrastructure weaknesses or plan for his or her safety. overseas students, from various disciplines--geography, neighborhood technology, making plans, public coverage, operations examine, arithmetic, computing device technology, engineering and transportation--offer various views in this topic. this article is a vital contribution supplying synthesis and new methodological methods. It explores the capability effects of serious infrastructure failure, stemming from either man-made and ordinary mess ups. The techniques hired are wide-ranging, together with geographic, monetary and social views on serious infrastructure issues.

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Extra info for Critical Infrastructure: Reliability and Vulnerability

Example text

Distribution grids (low-voltage) are radial networks that carry the electric power from the higher voltage levels to the final users. The number of levels in a distribution grid depends upon the density and magnitude of demand and the terrain. A Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Electric Power Systems 33 In an electric power system there always has to be a balance between the load and the generation (the real time power balance stage is called dispatch). The load on the system varies over day and season, and so does the available generation.

Accordingly, R(t) is the probability that the unit survives the time interval (0, t] (Høyland and Rausand 1994). 2 The Vulnerability Assessment Framework A framework for quantitative vulnerability assessment of infrastructure systems is presented in Fig. 1. The framework draws on experiences from system studies conducted by the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), and the traditional framework for risk assessment as presented in IEC (1995). Examples of vulnerability assessment frameworks inspired by the conventional risk analysis can also be found in Einarsson and Rausand (1998) and Doorman et al.

G. optimal power flow). For example, Milano (2005) provides a description of an open source toolbox for design and analysis of small to medium size electric power systems. Ordinary statistical analysis of empirical accident data is used extensively in studies of traffic and workplace accidents. The use of mathematical modeling in combination with empirical component data is well established in the nuclear and process industries (quantitative risk analysis or probabilistic safety analysis). ). Empirical data can also be combined with expert judgments with Bayesian statistical tools.

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