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By Paul O'Connor, Toru Takatsuka, Geoffrey L. Woolery

content material: Philosophical assessment of checking out / Paul O'Connor, Geoffrey L. Woolery, and Toru Takatsuka --
merits, chances, and boundaries of small-scale trying out of catalysts for fixed-bed approaches / S.T. Sie --
comparing pore constitution and morphology of hydrocarbon-conversion catalysts / R. Mann, ok. Khalaf, and A. Al-Lamy --
Deactivation of zeolite catalysts by way of coke / T. Masuda and ok. Hashimoto --
Modes of coking and deactivation of acid zeolite catalysts / M. Guisnet, P. Magnoux, and ok. Moljord --
Catalyst coking, activation, and deactivation / P.A. Sermon, M.S.W. Vong, and M. Matheson --
NMR innovations for learning the coking of zeolite-based catalysts / J.L. Bonardet, M.C. Barrage, and J. Fraissard --
Characterization of fluid catalytic cracking catalyst coke by way of ¹³C NMR and mass spectrometry / B.J. McGhee, J.M. Andresen, C.E. Snape, R. Hughes, C.L. Koon, and G. Hutchings --
Catalyst decay as an aspect response of the chain tactics of catalytic cracking / B.W. Wojciechowski and N.M. Rice --
Catalyst deactivation in fluid catalytic cracking : a evaluation of mechanisms and checking out tools / Paul O'Connor, E. Brevoord, A.C. Pouwels, and H.N.J. Wijngaards --
Sodium deactivation of fluid catalytic cracking catalyst / Xinjin Zhao and Wu-Cheng Cheng --
Contaminant-metal deactivation and metal-dehydrogenation results in the course of cyclic propylene steaming of fluid catalytic cracking catalysts / Lori T. Boock, Thomas F. Petti, and John A. Rudesill --
Catalyst deactivation in adiabatic prereforming : experimental equipment and types for prediction of functionality / Thomas S. Christensen and Jens Rostrup-Nielsen --
Mechanism of deactivation in reforming catalysts at begin of run / Yaofang Liu, Guoqing Pan, and Jiujin Yang --
Catalyst deactivation in advertisement residue hydrodesulfurization / Hiroki Koyama, Eiichi Nagai, and Hideaki Kumagai --
Deactivation of sunshine naphtha aromatization catalyst / S. Fukase, N. Igarashi, okay. Aimoto, and ok. Kato --
impact of procedure stipulations and catalyst houses on catalyst deactivation in residue hydroprocessing / M. Absi-Halabi and A. Stanislaus --
Catalyst deactivation in hydrodemetallization / J.P. Janssens, A.D. van Langeveld, S.T. Sie, and J.A. Moulijn --
task and coking expense of catalysts deactivated via fast-coking species additional to the feed / Dady B. Dadyburjor, Zhenyu Liu, Shigeki Matoba, Shinichi Osanai, and Tetsuya Shirooka --
Pilot reactor checking out of the impression of naphtha boiling element in catalytic reforming / ok. Moljord, ok. Grande, I. Tanem, and A. Holmen --
Vanadium mobility in fluid catalytic cracking / Richard F. Wormsbecher, Wu-Cheng Cheng, Gwan Kim, and Robert H. Harding --
greater equipment for trying out and assessing deactivation from vanadium interplay with fluid catalytic cracking catalyst / Bruce Lerner and Michel Deeba --
Riser simulator: trying out of adsorption results / Jacek Pruski, Ahmet Pekediz, and Hugo de Lasa --
improvement of a bench-scale fluid catalytic cracking microriser / M.P. Helmsing, M. Makkee, and J.A. Moulijn --
review of coke selectivity of fluid catalytic cracking catalysts / E. Brevoord, A.C. Pouwels, F.P.P. Olthof, H.N.J. Wijngaards, and Paul O'Connor --
Correlation of catalyst functionality among laboratory assessments and advertisement devices for hydrotreating residual oil / Yoshimitsu Miyauchi, Takeshi Hashiguchi, Naoto Kimbara, and Katsuhisa Fujita --
lifestyles trying out of sunshine hydrocarbon aromatization catalysts / okay. Hirabayashi, F. Igarashi, and T. Kondou --
functionality trying out of hydroconversion catalysts / W.H.J. Stork --
improvement of a try strategy to judge fluid catalytic cracking catalyst regenerability / V.L.N. Murthy, S. Debnath, M. Rama Rao, S.K. Ray, A.K. Das, and S. Ghosh --
A catalyst deactivation version for residual oil hydrodesulfurization and alertness to deep hydrodesulfurization of diesel gasoline / Toru Takatsuka, Yukitaka Wada, and Shin-ichi Inoue --
Modeling catalytic deactivation of benzene hydrogenation / Paul F. Meier and Marvin M. Johnson.

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Sample text

From Equation 8 i t follows that the important variables for even irrigation are the particle diameter, the liquid kinematic viscosity ( vL = 11L / p L ), and liquid velocity determined by LHSV and bed length. Figure I I shows the maximum allowable particle diameter as function of liquid kinematic viscosity for beds of different lengths. From this figure it can be deduced that testing of particles with a diameter of 2 mm will be acceptable in a pilot plant with a 5 m long bed, but will be very proble­ matic in a I 0 em long microflow reactor.

65 em, WHSV = 2, L\Tad = 25 °C). Table V. 3 *) L\ (ad) = deviation from true adiabacicity, given by the heat transfer rate between bed and metal walls as a percentage of total heat generation rate. L\ (ad, app) = deviation from true adiabacicity, deduced from axial heat conduction rate through the wall, as a percentage of total heat generation rate. For a true adiabatic reactor L\ (ad) and L\ (ad, app) are zero. 6 Reaction : k0 = 2 . 1 0 1 h- 1 , WHSV = 2, E/R = 1 7,500 K, Adiab. temp. K). 03 m.

2 n un . 2. SIE Small-Scale Testing of Catalysts for Fixed-Bed Processes 25 reactor is generally chosen to be the same as the weighted average bed temperature (W ABT) of the commercial adiabatic reactor. For large (pilot plant) laboratory reactors, on the other hand, the adiabatic mode of operation is generally preferable since natural heat losses play a lesser role and heat removal or supply through the bed is more difficult. In the following part the accuracy of temperature definition in both modes of operation will be analyzed.

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